World Rules of Carom Billiards

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WORLD RULES OF CAROM BILLIARD
Edition of January 1st 1989
Chapter I - General regulations
Art. 1 - Application of the rules
Chapter II - Equipment
Art. 11 - Billiard, cushion, cloth
12 - Balls, chalk
13 - Marking of the spots and starting line
14 - Billiard cue, rake
15 - Lighting
Chapter III - Common rules of all kinds of games of carom billiard
Art. 21 - Start of the match
22 - Cushion draw
23 - Starting position, cue-ball
24 - Cannon
25 - Break during the match
26 - Quit during the match
27 - Balls in contact with each other
28 - Balls bounding out of the billiard
29 - End of the match
Chapter IV - Fouls
Art. 41 - Fouls
42 - Wilful fouls
43 - Not stated fouls
Chapter V - Special rules for each kind of game
A - General regulations
Art. 51 - Indication of the balls
52 - Barred zones
53 - Position of the balls
54 - Foul concerning the zone
B - Partie libre
Art. 61 - Definition of the game
C - Cadres
Art. 71 - Definition
72 - Cadres and anchors
73 - Cadres of 47 cm and of 71 cm with 2 strokes
74 - Cadre of 47 cm with 1 stroke
D - Cushion games
Art. 81 - Definition
82 - One cushion
83 - Three cushions
Chapter VI - Final clauses
Art. 91 - Infringements
92 - Enforcement and annulment
Appendix:
- Paper A - marking of the mouches
- Paper B - drawing in of the barred zone in the partie libre
- Paper C - drawing in of the cadre of 47 cm
- Paper D - drawing in of the cadre of 71 cm
- Paper E - positions of the barred zones
- Paper F - positions of the balls in the case of setting them up on the mouches
in three cushions
World rules of carom billiard
World rules of carom billiard
CHAPTER I - GENERAL REGULATIONS
Article 1 - Application of the rules
1. The world rules of carom billiard complete the statutes and regulations of the
UMB. They are applicable at all world championships and intercontinental
tournaments officially recognized by the UMB.
2. The cases which are not provided by the rules of the UMB or the case of force
majeure will be regulated by the the official delegate of the UMB or by his
substitute after consultation with the official delegate of the organizing federation
and the director of the tournament.
Articles 2 to 10 - nothing
World rules of carom billiard
CHAPTER II - EQUIPMENT
Article 11 - Billiard, cushion, cloth
1. The billiard is a table which surface is rectangular, completely smooth and
horizontal.
2. The billiard table consists of slate with a minimum thickness of 45 mm or of any
other material approved by the UMB committee.
3. The demarcation of the playing surface is effected by setting up rubber cushions
of 37 mm in height at the frontmost point of the cushion. An allowance of plus or
minus 1 mm is admitted.
4. The size of the free playing surface is 2.84 m in length and 1.42 m in width. An
allowance of plus or minus 5 mm is admitted.
5. The rubber cushions are fastened to the entire length of an external frame of 12.5
cm in width which surface is entirely smooth and of a homogeneous colour. An
allowance of plus or minus 1 cm is admitted.
Exclusively a quality concerning the cushions which is recognized and authorized
by the UMB committee can be used.
6. The surface which reframes the cushions will have indelible marks fixed at
regular distance corresponding with 1/8 of the length of the playing surface.
Neither the mark of the producer nor any other indication will be allowed to be
fastened to the surface of this frame reframing the cushions.
7. The cloth which covers the billiard must be new and must have a quality and
colour which is admitted by the UMB committee.
The required details are published by the committee at the end of chapter I of the
world organization rules. The cloth will have to cover at most the slate and the
cushions. Exclusively a quality of cloth which is recognized and authorized by
the UMB committee can be used.
8. The hight of the billiard measured from the ground to the surface which reframes
the billiard must be between 75 and 80 cm.
9. The billiards meant for an official tournament will be equiped with an electrical
heater eliminating any humidity of the slate and of the cloth. This heater with a
thermostat will be switched on since the set up of the billiards and during the
whole competition in order to ensure the best possible rolling.
Article 12 - Balls, chalk
1. The balls consisiting of three must be of a material and of colours admitted by the
UMB committee. The required details are published by the committee at the end
of chapter I of the world organization rules.
2. These balls are rigorously round and their diameter must be between 61 and 61.5
cm. A ball's weight must be between 205 and 220 gramms or must have another
World rules of carom billiard
weight agreed by the UMB committee. However, the difference between the
heaviest and the lightest ball should not exceed two gramms.
3. The chalk should not excessively soil the surface of the game.
Article 13 - Marking of the spots and starting line
1. The places which must be occupied by the balls either at the beginning of the
match or in its course as soon as they stopped in contact with each other or bound
out of the billiard are named "spots".
2. The positions of these spots will be marked by means of a cross drawn as fine as
possible with chalk, in pencil or with ink. The marking by setting up small rings
is forbidden.
3. There are five spots drawn according to the indications of paper A - Marking of
the mouches - of the appendix.
Article 14 - Billiard cue, rake
1. The balls are set in motion by means of an equipment made of wood or any other
material which is named "billiard cue". The billiard cue may consist of one single
piece or may be divided into several parts. The cue must be equiped with a ring at
one of its ends called "leather tip". The player is only allowed to use the "leather
tip" in order to touch the ball. The player employs one or several cues of his
choice and he freely determines its length, weight and diameter.
2. The player has the right to use a "rake", a small stick with a stock at the end made
of wood or any other material determined to replace the hand in certain positions
of the body which are difficult to take.
Article 15 - Lighting
1. The light projected onto the billiard may not be lower than 520 lux on the whole
surface, the measuring instrument is put on the cloth to measure it.
The light must not be too strong, either; in order not to blind the players.
(blinding starts at 5,000 lux concerning direct view)
The distance between the source of light and the playing surface must be at least
1 meter.
2. The hall should not be in complete nightfall, but it will have to be leghtened with
at least 50 lux.
Articles 16 to 20 - nothing
World rules of carom billiard
CHAPTER III - COMMON RULES OF ALL KINDS OF GAMES OF CAROM BILLIARD
Article 21 - Beginning of the match
The match starts as soon as the referee has placed the balls for the execution of
the starting stroke.
Article 22 - Cushion draw
1. The referee places the two white balls on the starting line, on both sides of the
line of the three starting spots approximately 30 cm from each long cushion and
the red ball on the top spot.
As far as the cushion draw is concerned the referee places the spot or yellow ball
on the left side and the other white ball on the right side. If the two players insist
on playing with the same ball the referee will draw lots.
2. The players draw the beginning at the top cushion. The two white balls must be
in motion before one of them reaches the top cushion. If this is not the case the
draw will be repeated. The player who causes two times such a repetition loses
the choice to begin. It is not admitted to effect the cushion draw by a stand-in.
3. If the balls have touched each other on their way the faulty player (outside his
half of the billiard) will lose the choice to begin.
4. If the white balls have touched each other on their way and if it is impossible to
determine the faulty player or if the balls are at rest at the same distance from the
bottom cushion the referee arranges that the cushion draw will be repeated.
5. If the ball of a player touches the red ball the faulty player will lose the choice to
begin.
6. The player whose ball stops nearest to the bottom cushion has the choice to start
the match.
Article 23 - Starting position, cue-ball
1. The balls are set up by the arbiter:
a) the red ball on the top spot
b) the white ball of the partner on the bottom spot
c) the second white ball - that of the player - any way the player
wants on one of the two starting spots.
2. The player who starts the first inning of a match plays with the white ball if there
are two white balls (whereby one is spot) or if there are balls of three colours.
3. The starting cannon must be played by direct attack on the red ball.
World rules of carom billiard
4. In the case of a match with sets there is an alteration of the players concerning the
beginning of the matches regardless of the number of sets. The players keep the
same ball for the entirety of the match.
Article 24 - Cannon
1. The goal of the game consists of making as many cannons as possible within the
limit of the distance of the match.
2. A cannon is made as soon as the cue-ball set into motion by the stroke of the cue
comes into contact with the two other balls.
3. A cannon is valid if the three balls are at rest, if the player does not commit a
fault and if he respects the conditions imposed by the affected kind of game.
4. Each cannon counts one point.
5. If the referee announces that a cannon is valid the player will not have to quit. If
the cannon is not effected the referee indicates - if he thinks that it is necessary -
"missed" and the player has to quit.
Article 25 - Break during the match
A break of 5 minutes is made at the middle of the match.
The middle of the match is at the moment where a player reaches or exceeds half of the distance
determined for the kinds of game or disciplines of individual competitions at the end of his
inning. This regulation is not valid for the biathlon. As far as the triathlon is concerned the break
is made before playing the last discipline.
However, the break will only be made if the match lasts at least 45 minutes as far as a player
reaches half of the distance and if at that moment he does not reach 3/4 of the distance.
On the occasion of the break the referee can possibly be changed.
In the case of a match with set the break is made as follows:
- in a match best of 3 sets after the 2nd set;
- in a match best of 5 sets after the 2nd and/or after the 4th set.
Article 26 - Quit during the match
1. A player who quits his place during the match without being authorized by the
referee loses the match by this gesture. The case of force majeure occuring during
the championship will have to be assessed by the official delegate of the UMB or
by his substitute.
2. Each player who refuses to continue the match after the referee's demand will be
excluded from the championship.
Article 27 - Balls in contact
World rules of carom billiard
1. As soon as the cue-ball comes into contact with one of the two or with the two
other balls the rights of the player concerning all kinds of game, except the partie
libre for which the renewed placingon the starting point is obligatory, are the
following:
a) either to demand that the referee places them once again on the
spots;
b) or to play with the ball which is not in contact or to play the
cushion beforehand;
c) or to play the detached massé but on condition of not setting into
motion the ball being in contact. In this last case the player may
cannon first the ball which was in contact. It is not a foul if the
ball in contact solely moves on account of the fact that it loses the
hold which it possibly got by means of the cue-ball.
2. As soon as the cue-ball comes into contact with a cushion the player does not
have the right to play directly this cushion.
3. In the case of a renewed placing on the spots the balls will be placed by the
referee in the following way:
a) concerning the partie libre, the cadre disciplines and one cushion:
all three at the initial starting position;
b) concerning three cushions, only the balls being in contact are
once again placed on the spots:
- the red ball on the top spot
- the white ball of the player who wants to play, on
the central spot of the starting line
- the white ball of the opponent on the spot in the
middle of the billiard
- if the corresponding spot is occupied or hidden the
ball will be placed on the spot corresponding to
the ball which occupies or hides the spot. (paper
F)
Article 28 - Balls bounding out of the billiard
1. As soon as one or several balls bound out of the billiard the renewed placing on
the spots will be effected by the referee as follows:
a) all three balls at the initial starting position concerning the partie
libre, the cadre disciplines and one cushion
b) concerning three cushions only the ball or the balls bounding out
of the billiard are once again placed on the spots according to the
regulations of article 27.3 b) and not at the initial starting position.
2. A ball is considered to be bounding out of the biliard as soon as it falls out of the
frame or as soon as it touches the material of the frame.
World rules of carom billiard
Article 29 - End of the match
1. A match consists of a certain number of cannons (distance of the game) which
must be effected. This number varies according to the kind of game and is
determined by the committee.
2. Each started match must be played up to the last point. A match is finished as
soon as the referee announces "good" the last point even if one states after the
stroke, that the player did not effect the number of required points.
3. The committee determines whether the matches are played with or without an
even number of innings.
4. If the match is played with an even number of innings the opponent will have the
right to level with the number of innings by placing on the spots the balls which
are placed at the initial starting position as soon as the last point of the match will
have been effected by the player who has one additional inning than his
opponent. If the number of points, the limit of the match, is also reached by the
second player it is a match which ended in a draw.
5. In the case of a match with sets the following regulations are also applicable:
a) As soon as one of the players has reached the determined number
of points the set is finished and he is the winner. If it is the player
having executed the starting stroke who finishes his opponent will
not play the inning.
b) As soon as one of the players has reached the necessary number
of sets he is the winner of the match and it is immediately
interrupted.
Articles 30 to 40 - nothing
World rules of carom billiard
CHAPTER IV - FOULS
Article 41 - Fouls
There is a foul and one has to quit:
1. If during the execution of the stroke one or several balls bound out of the billiard
(indicated by "balls outside");
2. If the player plays before the three balls are at rest (indicated by "balls in
motion");
3. If the player uses antoher part of the cue than the leather tip in order to play
(indicated by "leather tip");
4. If the player, except the attack of his ball in order to execute the stroke, touches
any of the balls with part of the cue, with the hand or with any other object
(indicated by "touched");
In such a case the touched ball remains at the place which he occupies.
5. If the player touches or shifts a ball in order to remove a strange object which is
attached to it instead of demanding that the arbiter does it (indicated by
"touched");
6. If the player shifts a ball by means of a direct or indirect contact without the
shifting being the direct consequence of the execution of the stroke (indicated by
"touched");
7. If the player pushes through (indicated by "pushed through"). There is a pushing
through:
a) as soon as the leather tip comes several times into contact with the
ball set in motion;
b) as soon as the leather tip is still in contact with the cue-ball at the
moment where it touches the second ball;
c) as soon as the leather tip is still in contact with the cue-ball at the
moment where it touches the cushion;
8. If the player plays directly with the cue-ball the cushion with which it would be
in contact, without having detached it by means of a detached massé stroke in
advance (indicated by "ball in contact);
9. If at the moment where the player touches his ball he does not touch the floor
with at least one foot (indicated by "foot not on the floor");
The use of special shoes is not admitted.
10. If the player draws visible marking points on the playing surface, on the cushion
or on the frame (indicated by "marked");
World rules of carom billiard
11. If during the inning or in the course of a serie the referee states that the player
does not play with his ball (indicated by "wrong ball");
12. If the player does not respect the particluar rules of the various kinds of game
(indicated according to the rules);
13. If in spite of the demand of the referee the player does not play within the appointed
period of time (indicated by "not played").
Article 42 - Wilful fouls
If the foul defined by article 41.6 is wilfully committed the innocent player whose turn arrives
may demand that the referee once again places the ball or the balls as exactly as possible at the
positions which they occupied before the incident if he thinks that this position would be more
favourable for him.
Article 43 - Not stated fouls
1. If a cannon is made after a foul having been committed which has not been stated
the cannon is retained and the player must not quit.
2. Each fault committed by a third person, including the referee which causes
compulsory shifting of the balls is not ascribed to the player. In this case the balls
are once again placed by the referee as exactly as possible at the position which
they occupied or would have occupied.
Articles 44 to 50 - nothing
World rules of carom billiard
CHAPTER V - SPECIAL RULES FOR EACH KIND OF GAME
A - General regulations
Article 51 - Indication of the balls
One distinguishes between the cue-ball on the one hand and the two other balls called objectballs
on the other hand.
Article 52 - Barred zones
1. The number and the area of barred zones are determined by the congress. These
zones are delimited by lines drawn as fine as possible with chalk, in pencil or
with ink.
(paper B)
2. Within each of these barred zones the player will only be allowed to execute the
authorized number of cannons in the course of his serie which means that he must
force the two opposing balls to leave the zone in which they are, by means of the
determined stroke.
Article 53 - Position of the balls
(paper E)
1. The position "come in" is reached:
when the object-balls are at rest in the same zone while before the stroke of the
cue they were in another zone or in two different zones or in this same zone but
that one or both of the object-balls were leaving in order to integrate this zone
once again (indicated by "come in").
2. The position "in there" is reached:
a) when a cannon is made after the position "come in" without one
of the object-balls leaving the zone (indicated by "in there");
b) concerning cadre with one stroke on the same condition mentioned
in point a) above but indicated by "in there" instead of
"come in".
3. The position "astride" is reached:
when the two object-balls are at rest near a line of the zone but each of them in a
different zone (indicated by "astride").
4. The object-ball exactly placed on the line of the zone is considered to be
disadvantageous for the player.
5. One or the two object-balls are able to integrate once again and immediately the
zone which they leave in such a way that they form once again the position
"come in" or "in there".
World rules of carom billiard
6. The position relating to cadre is represented before it gets into the anchor. If the
two positions are the same the announcement will only be effected once followed
by "everywhere".
Article 54 - Foul concerning the zone
As soon as a carom is effected by leaving the position "in there" and as soon as no object- ball
leaves the zone there will be a foul (indicated by "remaining in there").
Articles 55 to 60 - nothing

World rules of carom billiard
B - Partie libre
Article 61 - Definition of the game
As far as the partie libre is concerned the player is allowed to execute succesively in the course
of the same serie an unlimited number of cannons within the limit of the distance on the whole
surface of the billiard except in the barred zones of the corner in which the game is regulated by
the regulations of the articles 51 to 60.
Articles 62 to 70 - nothing
World rules of carom billiard
C - Cadres
Article 71 - Definition
The cadre disciplines give the opportunity to several kinds of matches depending on the fact
whether they are played with one or two strokes of 47 or 71 centimetres with additional squares.
(paper C-D)
Article 72 - Cadres and anchors
1. On the playing surface one draws as fine as possible with chalk, in pencil or with
ink lines which form quadrilaterals called cadres. (barred zone)
2. Moreover, one draws at the end of each of these lines and astride them small
additional squares whereby one of the sides smooths with the internal side of the
cushion. These small squares are named anchors.
3. The prescriptions of the articles 51 to 60 are applicable as far as the line of the
cadre and the cadres are concerned are also valid concerning the lines of the
anchor and the anchors.
Article 73 - Cadres of 47 cm and 71 cm with 2 strokes
1. Concerning the cadre of 47 cm one draws four lines which determine the
following nine cadres on the billiard: three central rectangles within the length
and six squares within the width.
(paper C)
2. Concerning the cadre of 71 cm one draws three lines which determine the
following six squares on the billiard: two central rectangles within the length and
four squares within the width.
(paper D)
3. As far as the cadre disciplines with two strokes are concerned the player does not
have the right to execute succesively two cannons within the same cadre in the
course of the serie without forcing at least one of the two object-balls to leave it
by means of the second stroke.
Article 74 - Cadre of 47 cm with 1 stroke
1. The article 73 is analogously applicable to the cadre of 47 cm with 1 stroke.
2. As far as the cadre disciplines with 1 stroke are concerned the player does not
have the right to execute one single cannon within the same cadre in the course of
the serie without forcing at least one of the two object-balls to leave it.
Articles 75 to 80 - nothing
World rules of carom billiard
D - Cushion games
Article 81 - Definition
There are two kinds of cushion games, one cushion and three cushions.
As far as these games are concerned the billiard is freed from any lines.
Article 82 - One cushion
As far as one cushion is concerned the cue-ball must have come into contact with at least one
cushion before touching the second object-ball if not there will be a foul. (indicated by "no
cushion").
Article 83 - Three cushions
As far as three cushions is concerned the cue-ball must have come into contact at least three
times with one or several cushions before touching the second object-ball if not there will be a
foul (indicated by "no cushion" or "one cushion" or "two cushions").
Articles 84 to 90 - nothing
World rules of carom billiard
CHAPTER VI - FINAL CLAUSES
Article 91 - Infringements
Each infringement of the present rules will be treated according to the statutory regulations
relating to disciplinary proceedings.
Article 92 - Enforcement and annulment
1. The presented regulation is established by the UMB committee on the basis of
the statutory regulations taking effect. It is applicable since January 1st 1989 and
since that day it annuls all previous and contrary regulations.
2. The affiliated federations, the recognized confederations, the associated
members, as well as the contractuals partners of the UMB are committed to
respect them and cause them to be respected.
Articles 93 to 100 - nothing

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